2013-03-02

Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Sampah dan Biomassa (PLTS) Hasilkan Biogas dan Pupuk Organik



Sonson Manfaatkan Sampah untuk Energi Biomassa
KORAN JAKARTA
Sonson Manfaatkan Sampah untuk Energi Biomassa

Sampah memiliki dua sisi. Di satu sisi merugikan, namun di sisi lainnya dapat memberikan keuntungan. Pemerintah Kota (Pemkot) Bandung, Jawa Barat (Jabar), sedang dipusingkan dengan sampah yang terus menumpuk di TPS karena terbatasnya truk pengangkut sampah dan kapasitas TPA Sarimukti di Kabupaten Bandung yang segera habis. Kota ini pun kembali terancam menjadi kota sampah tanpa upaya jitu memanfaatkan sampah tersebut.

Padahal sudah banyak pihak yang membuktikan bahwa sampah sebenarnya memiliki keuntungan, seperti menjadikannya pupuk kompos organik atau bahkan mengubahnya menjadi energi alternatif terbarukan. Salah satunya yang dikembangkan Sonson Garsoni. Alumnus Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB) yang menjabat wakil Ketua Kadin Jabar ini mampu mengubah sampah dan kotoran ternak menjadi energi biomassa dan pupuk organik.

"Banyak ide untuk memproduksi energi terbarukan, termasuk biomassa, misalnya dengan memanfaatkan tanaman jarak atau ubi-ubian. Tetapi kalau tanamannya tidak tumbuh, usaha ini akan terhenti. Satu-satunya bahan baku biomassa yang terus ada bahkan tidak dimanfaatkan adalah sampah organik atau kotoran ternak. Dari situlah saya kepikiran," ujar dia saat ditemui di workshop-nya di Jalan Raya Banjaran 390, Kabupaten Bandung, belum lama ini.

Ia kemudian menjadi inisiator bagi pengembangan instalasi mini pembangkit listrik tenaga biomassa (PLTBM) di Kabupaten Bandung. Sonson mengaku mulai memproduksi sebuah reaktor mini yang dinamakan digester biogas sejak awal 2011. Uji coba pertama dilakukan di rumahnya dengan kapasitas digester 3.000 liter. Digester berbentuk kubus dengan bagian atas berbentuk bola setengah lingkaran. Digester terbuat dari fiber warna hijau. Bahan fiber dipilih karena antikarat dan mampu bertahan hingga 10 tahun.

Dengan kapasitas sebesar itu, saat dimasukkan campuran sampah organik, kotoran sapi, dan air seberat 150 kg, dapat menghasilkan energi biomassa untuk listrik 1.000 watt yang dapat bertahan selama enam jam. Biogas dapat dimanfaatkan untuk memasak tujuh keluarga dan hasil lainnya adalah pupuk cair dan pupuk kompos. Jika biomassa habis, harus dimasukkan sampah, kotoran ternak, dan air dengan ukuran yang sama. Demikian setiap harinya.

Dia menginvestasikan dana 25 juta rupiah untuk membangun digester, pipa gas, dan kompor gas yang sudah dimodifikasi. "Untuk menyalakan listrik memang diperlukan genset, tetapi bahan bakar genset sudah menggunakan biogas yang dihasilkan dari reaktor mini tersebut," tambahnya.

Sampah organik dan kotoran ternak yang dicampur dan difermentasi, selain menghasilkan biogas, ternyata mampu menghasilkan pupuk cair. Kini, ia sudah mampu memproduksi 300 liter pupuk cair per hari. Harga jualnya cukup lumayan, antara 20 ribu hingga 30 ribu rupiah per liter. Konsep zero waste berlaku di sini.

Kini, usaha tersebut semakin diminati. Melalui perusahaan yang dibentuk bersama dengan warga sekitar, PT Sinar Kencana sudah banyak menerima pesanan untuk membuat reaktor mini pembangkit biomassa. Kapasitas digester buatannya pun ditingkatkan, mulai 3.000 liter, 5.000 liter, dan 7.000 liter sesuai kemampuan investor.

Sejak 2011 hingga akhir 2012, sebanyak 33 unit mini PLTBM telah dibuat, di antaranya di pinggiran Danau Semayang Kutai Kartanegara dengan kapasitas 25 kilovolt ampere (KVA). Unit lainnya di Tangerang, Serang, Sigi (Palu), Mempawah (Kalbar), Tenggarong (Kaltim), Ciparay, serta Banjaran (Kabupaten Bandung).

Lokasi pembangunan reaktor biomassa mini itu berada di daerah yang terpencil, biasanya di kawasan hutan atau peternakan. Di wilayah Kutai, misalnya, energi biomassa didapat dari tanaman eceng gondok yang mengotori Danau Semayang. "Ribuan ton eceng gondok dipasok untuk dicacah dan difermentasi untuk membangun energi listrik tenaga sampah di sana. Kini, sekitar 900 warga sekitar danau sudah teraliri listrik. Sebelumnya, desa itu gelap gulita," ujar dia.

Pemanfaatan sampah atau kotoran ternak kembali pada semangat pemerintah daerah setempat. Di Kutai, yang memprakarsai adalah pemerintah daerah, sementara sisanya dikembangkan pihak swasta.

Terkait masalah sampah di Kota Bandung, ia menegaskan hal itu pun bergantung pada kemauan pemerintahnya. Soal teknologi, ia yakin banyak ahli yang mampu memecahkan masalah sampah di Kota Bandung, namun pemkot lebih percaya dengan China. Pemkot Bandung memang berencana membangun pembangkit listrik tenaga sampah di sekitar Gedebage, namun rencana itu sudah lima tahun belum juga terealisasi. teguh rahardjo/P-3

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